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19 December 17, 1:18pm The Review of Australia’s Climate Change Policies confirms that natural gas has a major part to play in achieving A… https://t.co/IQLYiBdj3X
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by APPEALtd
18 December 17, 2:14pm South Australian businesses and households stand to benefit from a State Government initiative aimed at boosting lo… https://t.co/C0pJlybeDD
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by APPEALtd
18 December 17, 2:13pm South Australian businesses and households stand to benefit from a State Government initiative aimed at boosting lo… https://t.co/DcQgh28bPL
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by APPEALtd
14 December 17, 3:34pm Western Australia could face a gas shortage if new supply is not developed in the next five to seven years. Banning… https://t.co/OlCYH9cHO3
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by APPEALtd

Cup of tea

If you are like most people, you have never given a moment’s thought to how natural gas gets delivered to industrial, commercial and residential customers. Before the gas arrives at your stovetop, it has navigated a supply chain of specialist operators with different regulatory environments and different, often complicated issues. Generally speaking, to get from underground to warming water, gas goes via three distinct sectors:

  • Production
  • Transmission
  • Distribution and retail.

Production (“Upstream”)

The upstream natural gas production industry includes the exploration for and extraction of raw natural gas from petroleum reservoirs and, increasingly in Australia, coal seams. Processing facilities then turn the raw gas into pipeline quality for the domestic market or LNG for export.

Currently, NSW produces about 5% of the gas used by NSW customers. The rest of the gas used comes from other states, which brings us to…

Transmission (“Midstream”)

The midstream gas transmission sector transports processed natural gas through high pressure pipelines from the processing facilities to the entry point to the distribution system (“city gate”) or sometimes directly to major manufacturing or power generation customers. Australia has about 25,000 kilometres of gas transmission pipelines.

Distribution and retail (“Downstream”)

The gas distribution and retail sectors are the downstream component of the gas supply industry. The gas distribution sector operates the lower pressure gas network that transports gas from city gates to homes, offices and factories. There are currently more than 80,000 kilometres of gas network pipelines in Australia.

The gas retail sector then sells the delivered gas to end use customers.

Cup of tea, anyone?